Long life span (5-10 years) vs lead acid (1-3 years), depending on depth of discharge.
Longer cycle life, as LiFePO4 batteries last 1,000 to 3,000 charge and discharge cycles, compared to similarly sized lead-acid batteries, which can range from 200 - 1000 cycles (again, assuming depth of discharge is within recommended limits for both battery types).
LiFePO4 batteries are less susceptible to problems caused by depth of discharge a LiFePO4 battery can be dropped to 20% of charge without long-term damage. Most lead-acid batteries lose capacity or cycle life if they're discharged more than 50%.
Lighter than lead-acid batteries.
Arguably, LiFePO4 batteries are more environmentally friendly than lead acid.
Very safe - the odds of a "thermal runaway" (aka battery fire) are very low. The same cannot be said of other lithium ion chemistries.
Charging SLA batteries (lead acid/sealed lead acid batteries) is notoriously slow. In most cyclic applications, you need to have extra SLA batteries available so you can still use your application while the other battery is charging. In standby applications, an SLA battery must be kept on a float charge.
With lithium batteries, charging is four times faster than SLA. The faster charging means there is more time the battery is in use, and therefore requires less batteries. They also recover quickly after an event (like in a backup or standby application). As a bonus, there is no need to keep lithium on a float charge for storage.
We recommend that the charger you use should be designed for charging Lithium batteries. SLA chargers can be used but can potentially damage or under charge the battery. The lithium charger should employ a constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV) charge. The constant current is dependent on the capacity (amperes hour rating) of the Lithium battery and is typically 1C (0.2C to 0.5C is recommended) or less, e.g. a 9 Ah battery should be charged at 9 A or less. The constant voltage should be a minimum of 14.6 V (contact us if you need advice on higher voltages packs - 24V or 48V).
Alternatively, A standard constant voltage lead acid battery charger can be used to charge the LiFePo4 Batteries, as long as they meet the following standards:
- Charger must not contain an equalization setting
- Maximum charge voltage of 14.6V
- Recommended float charge voltage of 13.8V
- A charger with Lithium Iron Phosphate setting is recommended
- Some smart or multi-stage lead acid battery chargers have a feature that detects OCV, so it would refuse to charge the over-discharged lithium battery
- Charger must not contain a de-sulphating setting
HIGH TEMPERATURE PERFORMANCE LITHIUM VS LEAD ACID
Lithium’s performance is far superior than SLA in high temperature applications. In fact, lithium at 55°C still has twice the cycle life as SLA does at room temperature. Lithium will outperform lead under most conditions but is especially strong at elevated temperatures.
COLD TEMPERATURE PERFORMANCE LITHIUM VS LEAD ACID
Cold temperatures can cause significant capacity reduction for all battery chemistries. Knowing this, there are two things to consider when evaluating a battery for cold temperature use: charging and discharging. A lithium battery will should not be charge at a low temperature (below 0°C). However, an SLA can accept low current charges at a low temperature.
Conversely, a lithium battery has a higher discharge capacity at cold temperatures than SLA. This means that lithium batteries do not have to be over designed for cold temperatures, but charging could be a limiting factor.
BATTERY WEIGHT COMPARISON LITHIUM VS LEAD ACID
Lithium, on average, is 55% lighter than SLA. In cycling applications, this is especially important when the battery is being installed in a mobile application, or where weight may impact the performance. For standby use, weight is an important consideration in remote applications and where installation is difficult.
BATTERY STORAGE LITHIUM VS LEAD ACID
Lithium should not be stored at 100% State of Charge (SOC), whereas SLA needs to be stored at 100%. This is because the self-discharge rate of an SLA battery is 5 times or greater than that of a lithium battery. In fact, many customers will maintain a lead acid battery in storage with a trickle charger to continuously keep the battery at 100% so that the battery life does not decrease due to storage.
SERIES & PARALLEL BATTERY INSTALLATION
A quick and important note: When installing batteries in series and parallel, it is important that they are matched across all factors including capacity, voltage, resistance, state of charge, and chemistry. SLA and lithium batteries cannot be used together in the same string.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of LiFePO4 battery?
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery differ from Lithium-ion battery which using phosphate as anode material. It is popular use to motive batteries, such as electric bikes, motorcycles, light electric vehicles and pure electric vehicle.
LiFePO4 battery advantages:
Longer cycle life - LiFePO4 batteries offers a longer cycle life than Lithium-ion batteries and Lithium-ion Polymer batteries. Qualified LiFePO4 cells should remain 80% DOD after 2000 cycles of charging and discharging.
Safety and stability - LiFePO4 batteries has one key advantage over other Lithium-ion batteries is the superior thermal and chemical stability, which provides better safety characteristics than Lithium-ion batteries with other cathode materials.
Constant output power - Unlike other Lithium-ion batteries, LiFePO4 batteries have a very constant discharge voltage. Voltage stays close to 3.2 V during discharge until the cell is exhausted. This allows the cell to deliver virtually full power until it is discharged.
Environmentally friendly - LiFePO4 batteries are non-toxic, non-contaminating and contain no rare earth metals, making them an environmentally conscious choice. The use of LiFePO4 also reduces the cost and environmental concerns of Lithium Cobalt cells, particularly in regards of cobalt entering the environment through improper disposal.
There are also other advantages same as Lithium-ion battery:
No memory effects
No requirement for priming
LiFePO4 battery disadvantages:
Lower energy density - The energy density of LiFePO4 battery is lower than Lithium-ion batteries
Poor performance under low temperature - LiFePO4 batteries has poor performance when discharging at -20℃. However, low temperature Lithium-ion or Lithium Polymer batteries can discharge at -40℃ and output 70-80% DOD.
LiFePO4 batteries must have a management system. Unlike conventional batteries, LiFePO4 batteries must have their individual (nominally 3.2 volt) cells equally charged, and charge voltage and current kept within safe limits. This system may be external – or not supplied at all. Without that system, the battery will quickly be wrecked.